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Gall, Gall Bladder

 

As already mentioned in the chapter on the gall bladder, the latter is located at the lower rim of the liver and serves as a reservoir of bile. The bile duct system belonging to it starts in the liver, where the liver cells produce bile and distribute it into very tiny bile ducts which then permeate the liver. They finally collect at the lower rim of the liver to form two bigger ducts that then leave the liver.

 gallenblase

Functions of the gall bladder

The bile plays a central role in digesting fats and in discharging the catabolic products of the liver metabolism. It consists of various substances, the main components being bile acid, cholesterol, lecithin, certain fats, and some enzymes. The demand of bile depends on the food consumed. Between the meals, only little bile is required in the small bowel, so that the greater part of the bile is stored in the gall bladder. During the passage of food through the stomach into the first part of the duodenum, various digestive mechanisms are activated and regulated by vegetative nerves and messenger substances (hormones). Among these mechanisms are the production of gastric juice and the release of bile. As the liver cannot increase the production of bile at short notice, the reserves of the gall bladder are mobilized if necessary. Digestive hormones from the stomach and nervous impulses from the vegetative nerve system cause the gall bladder to contract, so that the reserves of bile flow through the common bile duct into the duodenum and the small bowel. Thus, there is enough bile available to digest the consumed fats in the small bowel and to absorb them in the body.

Where is the gallbladder located?

The gall bladder is an oval and hollow organ, 3 - 4 cm wide and 5 - 10 cm long, located at the lower edge of the liver. The bile duct system belongs to the liver, where the liver cells produce bile that flows into tiny bile ducts, which permeate the liver. These finally assemble at the lower edge of the liver to form two bigger ducts and leave the liver. After a short distance, the two unite to form the common bile duct, which in one place is connected to the gall bladder. After having passed the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct continues to the duodenum. There, it empties into the bowel together with the secretory duct of the pancreas. At this place of transition into the bowel, the papilla as the conclusion of the bile duct system is located and controls the flow of the bile.
In the gall bladder, there are muscle cells, which are able to involuntarily contract or relax the gall bladder. This mechanism enables the gall bladder to take in bile while relaxed and to squeeze out bile when contracting. The gall bladder only serves as a reservoir for the storage of bile. The liver cells daily produce about 800 - 1500 ml of bile, which partly flows directly into the duodenum via the common bile duct. Part of the bile remains stored in the gall bladder and is thickened.


Gall Bladder and Bile Ducts

 

gallen organ 

 

 

Overview of the abdominal organs

 

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